「彼は嬉しい」「猫は怒った。」

  •  
  • 579
  • 6
  • 2
  • English 
May 29, 2011 16:58 Japanese_language 形容詞 動詞 「のだ」
The following mistake in Japanese is not often seen on Lang-8, so you can read this as refresher training.

Personal pronouns below can be omitted.

私は嬉しい。(I am happy.)
* 彼は嬉しい。(He is happy.) The * means that the sentence is wrong.
彼は喜んだ。(He was glad.)
私は喜んだ。(I was glad.) This is usually strange or sounds like a translation.

Generally, one expresses their own feelings using adjectives, while they talk about somebody else’s feelings using verbs. The reason is that one cannot understand other people’s feelings so one cannot use adjectives for those feelings. Instead of adjectives, “seem” and such also can be used.

彼は嬉しいようだ。
彼は嬉しいらしい。
彼は嬉しいのだ。
* 私は嬉しいようだ。
* 私は嬉しいらしい。
* 私は嬉しいのだ。 This is saying by バカボン and such.

The following is a bonus.
Some verbs seem to have the nature of adjectives. For example:
彼は怒った。(He got angry.)
猫は怒った。(The/A cat got angry.) I feel that this is unnatural. I feel that it is humanization. Maybe, it is thought that cats cannot get angry in the same way as humans.
猫は怒ったようだ。
猫は腹を立てた。I feel that this is acceptable.