英文标点符号指南 Guide to English Punctiation (双语言)

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Jan 20, 2015 17:24 标点 符号 英文 空格
想学会怎么准确地使用英文的标点符号?你来对地方了!若有疑问,请留个评论!(全英文版见下。)

一般规则:

• 使用【. , ; : ? ! …】时,后面加一个空格,前面不要加:
This was really fun! Let’s do it again sometime. √
This was really fun!Let’s do it again sometime. ×
After you get dressed, don’t forget to brush your teeth. √
After you get dressed ,don’t forget to brush your teeth. ×

• 使用【“” () []】时,开头前加一个空格,结尾后也加一个:
My friend (the one you met last week) is going to Italy. √
My friend(the one you met last week)is going to Italy. ×

• 英文写作中,尽量不要无意中使用中式标点【。,、;:?!……等】。就像中文写作中的英式标点很难看,英文写作中的中式标点也很难看。

句号(full stop(英)、period(美))【.】
用于句子的结尾。尽量不要用在句子的中间:
If she’s there, then I’ll go. √
If she’s there. Then I’ll go. ×
I like carrot cake, but I don’t like cheesecake. √
I like carrot cake. But I don’t like cheesecake. ×

每句话的第一字母要大写:
I love you. You love me. √
I love you, and you love me. √
I love you. you love me. ×

逗号(comma)【,】
一般用在两个分句之间。具体的规则有点复杂,但在*大部分*情况下跟中文的规则一样。
扩展阅读:https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/607/01/ (英)

分号(semi-colon)【;】
一般用在关系较近的而没有连接词的独立分句之间。
扩展阅读:https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/607/04/ (英)

冒号(colon)【:】
用于介绍清单、进一步描述、介绍引文:
We’ve got what we need: two eggs, a corkscrew, and an inflatable boat. √
My friend is so lucky: not only does she have a great job, she also gets to travel all over the world. √
Here, Hamlet gives his famous soliloquy, containing perhaps one of the most well-known lines from the whole Shakespeare canon: “to be or not to be, that is the question”. √

引文也可以以逗号为介绍——选用哪个符号基本上是作者的选择,但一个较好的标准是将逗号用于段的引文(7词以下):
Nietzsche once claimed, “God is dead”. √

问号(question mark)【?】
用在疑问句后。

叹号(exclamation mark)【!】
用在命令句后,也用在带有强烈的感情的感叹句后。不要过度使用,也不要用重复着用。
Go to bed! √
I’m so excited! √
It’s not bad, I guess! ×
I’m so excited!!! ×
“重复着用叹号肯定是心理患病的一个症状。” —— 泰瑞•普莱契

省略号(ellipsis(复:ellipses))【…】
用于表示省略。再次,不要过度使用。英文中,省略号是三个点【…】而不是六个点【……】形成的。

引号(quotation marks)【“”】
用于指出引文:
Descartes said, “I think, therefore I am.” √

也可以指出一个单词,用为一个单词。听起来有点糊涂嘛?
My hat is dark red and made of wool. √
“My hat” is a phrase composed of a possessive pronoun and a noun. √
My hat is a phrase containing five letters. ×

不要用来强调一个词语:
Lang-8 is a *fantastic* website! √
Lang-8 is a “fantastic” website! ×
理想地说,你可以用黑体字或斜体字来强调,但没有这个选择的话,在网络上使用星号比较普遍。

撇号(apostrophe)【’】
可以用来表示拥有:
This is my brother’s car. [属于my brother的car] √

也可以用来表示一个以上的字母被省略:
Don’t go there. [Do not] √
She’s my best friend. [She is] √
I can’t swim. [Cannot] √

然而,不容用于物主代词“its”:
It’s a dog. [It is] √
The dog is chasing its tail. [属于it的tail] √
It’s tail is brown. ×

圆括号(round brackets(英)、parentheses(美))【()】
用来补充另外的,为了了解句子的意思不必要的信息。

方括号(square brackets)【[]】
用在引文里面,表示本来的发言者省略的信息,或者为了使句子语法化而修改它:
Abraham Lincoln supposedly once said: “I am going to destroy [my enemies]. I am going to make them my friends”. √
(本来的字眼是“destroy them”;“them”指的是林肯的敌人。)
Want to learn how to accurately use English punctuation? You’ve come to the right place! If you have any questions, leave me a comment!

General rules:

• When you use {. , ; : ? ! …}, make sure to add one blank space afterwards, and no blank spaces before:
This was really fun! Let’s do it again sometime. √
This was really fun!Let’s do it again sometime. ×
After you get dressed, don’t forget to brush your teeth. √
After you get dressed ,don’t forget to brush your teeth. ×

• When you use {“” () []}, add a blank space before the opening mark, and one after the closing mark:
My friend (the one you met last week) is going to Italy. √
My friend(the one you met last week)is going to Italy. ×

• Make sure not to accidentally use Chinese punctuation {。,、;:?!…… etc.} in your text. Just as English punctuation looks ugly in Chinese text, Chinese punctuation looks ugly in English text.

Full stop (Br. Eng.)/period (Am. Eng.) {.}
Use this at the end of sentences. Make sure not to use it in the middle of a sentence:
If she’s there, then I’ll go. √
If she’s there. Then I’ll go. ×
I like carrot cake, but I don’t like cheesecake. √
I like carrot cake. But I don’t like cheesecake. ×

The first letter of every sentence should be capitalised:
I love you. You love me. √
I love you, and you love me. √
I love you. you love me. ×

Comma {,}
These are normally used between clauses. The exact rules of use are complicated, though in *most* situations they’re the same as in Chinese.
Further reading: https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/607/01/ (English)

Semi-colon {;}
Semi-colons are normally used to link closely related independent clauses with no connecting words.
Further reading: https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/607/04/ (English)

Colon {:}
This is used for presenting lists of items, adding further detail, or introducing quotations:
We’ve got what we need: two eggs, a corkscrew, and an inflatable boat. √
My friend is so lucky: not only does she have a great job, she also gets to travel all over the world. √
Here, Hamlet gives his famous soliloquy, containing perhaps one of the most well-known lines from the whole Shakespeare canon: “to be or not to be, that is the question”. √

Quotations can also be introduced with a comma – the choice of which to use is mainly the author’s choice, though a good guideline is to use a comma for short quotations (seven words or fewer):
Nietzsche once claimed, “God is dead”. √

Question mark {?}
Use this after questions.

Exclamation mark {!}
Use this after commands, and after exclamations to show strong emotion. Don’t overuse them, and don’t use more than one in a row.
Go to bed! √
I’m so excited! √
It’s not bad, I guess! ×
I’m so excited!!! ×
“Multiple exclamation marks are a sure sign of a diseased mind.” – Terry Pratchett

Ellipsis (plural: ellipses) {…}
Use this to show the omission of something. Again, don’t overuse them. In English, ellipses are formed of three dots {…} rather than six dots {……}.

Quotation marks {“”}
These are used to mark quotations.
Descartes said, “I think, therefore I am.” √

They can also mark a word that’s being used *as a word*. Sound confusing?
My hat is dark red and made of wool. √
“My hat” is a phrase composed of a possessive pronoun and a noun. √
My hat is a phrase containing five letters. ×

Don’t use them for emphasis.
Lang-8 is a *fantastic* website! √
Lang-8 is a “fantastic” website! ×
Ideally, you would use bold or italic text for emphasis, but when you don’t have that option, using asterisks {*} is common in internet usage.

Apostrophe {’}
This is used to show possession:
This is my brother’s car. [The car belonging to my brother] √

It’s also used to show that one or more letters have been omitted:
Don’t go there. [Do not] √
She’s my best friend. [She is] √
I can’t swim. [Cannot] √

However, it’s not used for the possessive pronoun “its”:
It’s a dog. [It is] √
The dog is chasing its tail. [The tail belonging to it] √
It’s tail is brown. ×

Round brackets (Br. Eng.)/parentheses (Am. Eng.) {()}
These are used for extra information which isn’t essential for understanding the main sentence.

Square brackets {[]}
These are used within quotes to show information that the original speaker omitted, or to change the text to make it grammatical:
Abraham Lincoln supposedly once said: “I am going to destroy [my enemies]. I am going to make them my friends”. √
(The original wording is “destroy them”, with “them” referring to Lincoln's enemies.)
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