Present/Past Perfect

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Aug 22, 2017 16:36
I think this entry is too long to read.
If you have some time for me, would you check my understanding?

This is my understanding for present perfect and past perfect.
It is too difficult to understand to me, but I must understand it.

Present perfect and past perfect (p,p.) mean completions, results, continuouses and experiences.
In Japanese, p.p. is often explained in that the event happened in the past causes the situation now, but that should be forgotten when p.p. is used as completions and results.

-- Completions, Results
They mean that the event (has) happened "just" now or a specific time.
Certainly, that means a past event, but the "past" time is no longer past.
Almost... "just now."
Completions mean that it can't be observed.
Results mean that it can be observed.
However, it is not important to use.
e.g.) I've finished my homework just now.

-- Continuous
It means that the event started the past time and is still continued now or a specific time.
It is often used with "for" and "since."
It can be also used with "lately."
Present or past perfect continuous also mean continuous.
When the verb means the state (know/believe/etc), p.p.
When the verb means the movement (talk/study/etc), p.p.continuous.
When the verb means the habit (live/work/etc), both of them.
ex1) I've thought the cause of the problem since last night.
ex2) It's been raining since this morning.
ex3) I've lived in Tokyo for three years.

-- Experiences
It means that how many or often someone experienced the event since a specific time until now or a specific time.
It is often used with once/twice/xxx times, or often/usually/etc.
ex) I've climbed Mt.Fuji once.
完了形について

完了形の表す意味は「完了・結果・継続・経験」の4つがある。
完了形は「過去に起こったことを現在に結び付けて」と説明されることが多いが、「完了・結果」の意味で用いる場合はこれは忘れた方がよい。

●完了・結果
「ちょうど今」「ちょうどその時」という意味合いの用法。
確かにこれはその時点から見て過去に起こったことを指すのだが、その過去の範囲がとても狭い。
「ついさっき」くらいまでの範囲と考えておくとよい。
完了は「現時点で観測で不可能なもの」、結果は「現時点で観測可能なもの」と分類できるが、使用する上において気にする必要はない。
ex) I've finished my homework just now.

●継続
「ある時から今(その時)までずっとしていた」という意味合いの用法。
主にfor(これくらい前から)やsince(この時から)とともに用いる。
「最近」を表すlatelyもここで使用可能。
同様に継続を表す「完了進行形」があるが、これらは主に使用する動詞によって使い分けられる。
状態を表す動詞(know/believe/etc)の場合は完了形が主に用いられる。
動作を表す動詞(talk/study/etc)の場合は完了進行形が主に用いられるが、完了進行形は未だ継続中、完了形はすでにやめてしまった、という意味合いを含む場合がある。
習慣を表す動詞(live/work/etc)の場合はどちらも用いられる。
ex1) I've thought the cause of the problem since last night.
ex2) It's been raining since this morning.
ex3) I've lived in Tokyo for three years.

●経験
「ある時から今(その時)までにこれくらい経験した」という意味合いの用法。
「ある時」の部分が省略されると「今(その時)までに」の意となる。
once/twice/xxx times等の回数を表す語やoftenなどの頻度を表す語とともに用いられる。
ex) I've climbed Mt.Fuji once.
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